Chapter 6 Notes
A force is defined as any push or pull. All forces are derived from only four basic forces (also known as interactions). They are gravitational, electromagnetic, strong nuclear force, and weak nuclear force. Forces are carried or transmitted between particles by other particles:
Electromagnetic forces are carried by photons. This force exists between any two charged objects.
The weak nuclear force is carried by three particles known as the weak bosons. It is associated with the radioactive decay of some nucleii.
The strong nuclear force is carried by eight particles known as the gluons. It is the strongest force and binds quarks into protons and neutrons
Gravity is thought to be carried by a yet undetected particle called a graviton. It is the weakest of the forces and is an attractive force between any objects with mass.
There are several current theories which attempt to relate all of these forces as being subsidiary to one single force. Such a theory is the Grand Unifying Theory (GUT).
1) An object in motion will remain in motion until an unbalanced force acts on it. We also say that a body at rest will remain at rest until a forces acts on it. (Actually, if all forces are removed from an object the term "at rest" or "in motion" depends on the reference frame of the observe.) Galileo probably was the real founder of this law, having done much of the work before Newton's time. This law is often called Galileo's Law of Inertia.
(2) Terms to know: inertia, net force, balance and unbalance force.
F = ma : This is by far the most important equation in first year physics, and along with the basic photosynthesis equation governs much of the existence you have come to enjoy!
NOTE: "F" in this equation represents the NET force!
The first step in solving any force problem is to write down F = ma .
There will be other versions of this formula which we will explore later.
The law states that if an unbalanced force is applied to a mass, that mass will accelerate. Furthermore, the acceleration will be in inverse proportion to the mass.
F = ma is a vector relationship.
F = ma = (1.00 kg)(1.00 m/s2) = 1 Newton, (1 N is about the weight of an apple). There are about 4.45 Newtons per pound.
For every action there is an opposite and equal reaction. Imagine jumping from a small canoe unto a dock.
You will not pass this course without a clear understanding of the difference between mass and weight.
Mass is the amount of matter in a substance.
Normally weight is considered the gravitational force of attraction of a small object and a much larger object- between you and the earth. We could easily calculate the force of attraction between the moon and the earth, but to call this a weight would not have a lot of meaning.
weight = m * g
where g is the acceleration of gravity (9.80 m/s2)
In this course you will calculate weight in every conceivable way. For example, how much do you weigh on Mars due to the gravity of Jupiter?
How much does a 200 lb. astronaut weigh on the space shuttle while in orbit? The answer is about 170 lb.
Weighing yourself in an accelerating elevator:
1. What is your/the elevator’s acceleration?
2. What is your mass?
3. What is the net force?
4. Draw your free body diagram.
5. Write an equation with your net force and all forces acting on you.
6. Solve for the force of the scale.
Net force is the sum of all forces acting concurrently upon an object.
Such forces do not necessarily have to act in the same dimension.
The net force might not be in the same direction as any of the individual forces at work.
Net force, like all forces, is vector in nature and will have both magnitude and direction.
Newtons 2nd law formula, F = ma, should always use the net force for F.
What is the net force on this car?
If the car has a mass of 500.0 kg, what is the acceleration of this car?